Uganda-Rwanda general information
Rwanda is the fourth smallest country on the African mainland. Rwanda’s geographical size is the same as for Bwindi, Haiti, Albania, Gambia, Swaziland and Djibouti.In the latest years Rwanda’s modern human settlement become the last glacial period either in Neolithic period around 8000BC ,after in long humid period turned up to 3000BC.The archaeological had to reveal evidence from different settlement by the hunter gathers into the stone age,later it was followed by the larger population of the iron age settlers who used to produce iron tools.
Between 700Bc and 1500AD anumber of bantu group migrated into Rwanda look for land settlement and land agriculturlist ,this affected the Twa to mave to the mountain slopes since half of land was taken by the bantu.The historical back ground of this Bantu migration came up with different clans the Hutu , Tutsi and Twa ,Th Hutu were the first settler, Tutsi were cattle gathers,Twa hunters to form aracial goup of Nile hamitic origin.
The reconstruction of king’s palace in Rwanda known as Nyaniza brought the social organization in an area and they were this three clans the Hutu ,Tutsi and the Twa who were not limited in the geographical lineages.By mid eighteenth century the Tutsi expanded in the kingdom of Rwanda ,king kigeli Rwanbugi had to conquerseveral states to expand the kingdom from west and north during the nineteenth century under his reign.
The Tutsi were cattle gathering and privileages in exchange for economic ,even though Hutu were the first settlers they had nothing so they were forced to work for Tutsi chief.But the king Rwabugiri changed the cause of this two to grow into relationship ,the Twa by that time were much more better off than the pre-kingdomdays but their number continued to decline due to the fighting of this two clan the Hutu and the Tutsi.
The signing of the territory to Germany as part of Germany East African in 1884 Berlin Conference marked the beginning of colonial era.The Germany did not fight the social life of this country ,what they did they had to provide enough support to the king deligating power to the king.
During the world war 1the Belgian force took control over Rwanda and Burundi in 1916 and it brought up direct colonial rule in between the two countries known as League of Nation Mandate in local name Ruada-Urudi.
By 15 century Rwanda faced genocide in between the three clans that’s to say the Hutu, Tutsi and the Twa who had fighting against each other.This happened when the Tutsi had tension of getting early independence while the Hutu had emancipation movement.The Rwanda revolution took took plance in 1959 when the Hutu clan who called themselves the wealthy clan strated killing the Tutsi and ended up destroying their houses and many people’s life were lost.This caused more than 100000 people to migrate to the neighbouring countries seeking for refuge. Before it was the Belgium who ruled the Ruad –Urundi meeting ”Rwanda and Burundi “ of which Rwanda had to form the northern part as aunited nation trust party after the second world war.Laterly on in 1961 the pro Hutu Belgians held ameeting in which the country had to vote so that they shound stop the monarchy that was in between the two clans,Juvenal Habyarimana won the election and he become the president of Rwanda from 1973 -1994.
Laterly on Rwanda had to separate from Burundi to gain it’s independence this took place on 1 July 1962 and this day become acelebration day and apublc holiday.Tutsi continued to be violented by Hutu who called themselves as wealthy clan with largest scale of land and the poor Tutsi and the Twa people were humiliated by forcing them out of the forest to go to the neighbouring countries ,the over taking of military coup abolished the Hutu and this reduced amount of violence against Tutsi and the Twa remained marginalized.
They never stopped from attacking this clans ,the Rwanda patriotic front in short the rebel group they continued attacking of over 500,000 Tutsi refugees in 1990,this rebel they attacked the Tutsi from their hiding places all way in Northern Rwanda to their base in Uganda.This happened during the Rwanda civil war ,people started to condemning the Hutu government for failing to understand the problem that was facing these refugees but for them continued neglecting them.
Unfortunately in 1992 president Habyarimana’s Authority were weakened even he was forced into coalition with the demostic opposition to sign the 1993 Arusha accord with the Rwanda patriotic force.Due to selfishness of Habyarina’s heart to one clan people hated him ,eventully he died on the shooking down of the plane on 6 April 1994 near Kigali Airport.
Approximately of about 100days around 800,000 Tutsi and politically moderate Hutu were killed in well planned attacks on the orders of the interim government ,even numbery of Twa were killed despite not being directly targeted.
Indefinately the Tutsi restarsted their offensive and ended up taking control of the country politically,methodically gaining control of the whole country but this happened by the help of the United Nation peace keeping force which was in charge of ending this genocide.
The Rwanda patriotic force they again caused over two million Hutu to migrate to the neighbouring countries of zaire where they got arefugee camp to stay,additionally the RPF were the leding army that worked straigt forward in the first and the second congo war.
After the death of Habarimana the country had to seat as the member of the government by that time to contest for another election because they wanted another president who will stand on power and fight the genocide in the country.
The over taking of president Pual Kagame brought change ,devolpment ,peace and harmony in the country .Rwandan president Pual Kagame is known of being the head of the state and had impoved on the powers of the country through creating policy conjuction with the cabinet,commanding the armed forces,Negotiating treaties ,signing presidential orders and declaring war or state emergence.
The coming of the Belgian and Germanys simplified a lot on both countries through introducing large scale project in Education,healthy public works and improvement on agriculture tenchniques to reduce on the problem of femine and also to change on way of presidential elections.
Both Germanys and Belgium protected the tutsi saparetly ,they wanted to solve out incidence between the Hutu and the Tutsi to consinder Hutu and Tutsi in different races The Belgians decided to introduce identity cards labelling each individual as either Twa, Hutu ,Tutsi or naturalist this earned to prevent further movement in between this classes.